The Crying Indian was Italian, and that ad was paid for by the producers of single-use trash, to shift blame onto individuals. Here’s what can be done about that trash.
Sure people shouldn’t litter, but Anheuser-Busch and other beer makers, as well as Nestlé, Coca Cola, and Walmart, should stop making and selling disposable bottles and cans.
Fifty years ago those things had deposits on them, and people would collect them for the cash. That could be useful to a lot of people, and a lot more cleanups would happen. Sure, there was still trash back then, but not as much.
People still do in Hawaii and nine other states: California, Connecticut, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Oregon, Vermont, plus Guam. They don’t have nearly as big of a litter problem.
But Georgia or Florida do not have such container deposits. Maybe we should change that.
No, recycling will not solve this problem. There’s no market for plastic to recycle, and recycling has been pushed by big oil for years as an excuse to make more plastic throw-away containers. Laura Sullivan, NPR, 11 September 2020, How Big Oil Misled The Public Into Believing Plastic Would Be Recycled.
You’ve probably seen the famous ‘Crying Indian’ ad from 1971:
Well, the “Indian” was Italian-American, and that ad was part of a campaign by the trash-producer front group Keep America Beautiful.
Finis Dunaway, Chicago Tribune, 21 November 2017, The ‘Crying Indian’ ad that fooled the environmental movement,
Keep America Beautiful was founded in 1953 by the American Can Co. and the Owens-Illinois Glass Co., who were later joined by the likes of Coca-Cola and the Dixie Cup Co. During the 1960s, Keep America Beautiful anti-litter campaigns featured Susan Spotless, a white girl who wore a spotless white dress and pointed her accusatory finger at pieces of trash heedlessly dropped by her parents. The campaign used the wagging finger of a child to condemn individuals for being bad parents, irresponsible citizens and unpatriotic Americans. But by 1971, Susan Spotless no longer captured the zeitgeist of the burgeoning environmental movement and rising concerns about pollution.
The shift from Keep America Beautiful’s bland admonishments about litter to the Crying Indian did not represent an embrace of ecological values but instead indicated industry’s fear of them. In the time leading up to the first Earth Day in 1970, environmental demonstrations across the United States focused on the issue of throwaway containers. All these protests held industry — not consumers — responsible for the proliferation of disposable items that depleted natural resources and created a solid waste crisis. Enter the Crying Indian, a new public relations effort that incorporated ecological values but deflected attention from beverage and packaging industry practices.
Every Waterkeeper and many local and even state governments brag about trash cleanups. Cleanups need to be done, but actually they are the least effective way to deal with trash. They do not stop trash; they just remove it once it blows off roads or parking lots or floats downstream.
So let’s look up, to see more effective solutions.
Here WWALS has adapted an industry-standard waste management hierarchy diagram. We’ve gone farther than just cleaning up, containing, or even reusing the trash. Our diagram goes all the way up to stopping it being produced.
Other cities and counties have trash problems. Valdosta and Lowndes County are our current main focus of work about trash because they are the most populous city and county in the Suwannee River Basin.
Let’s start at the pointy bottom of the pyramid.
Landfilling: cleanups go here, at the bottom, least-effective point of the pyramid, because trash from cleanups goes into landfills.
That is better than into creeks and rivers, but it sure does not stop the problem.
- Cleanups alone are like cleaning up sewage spewing out of manholes without fixing the manhole to stop the leak.
- Trash still gets into creeks where children play and where wildlife eat styrofoam and plastic that they can’t digest.
Cities don’t ask volunteers to clean up sewage spills.
They should not depend on volunteers to clean up their ongoing trash spills.
Containment, aka Engineering: this is where detention ponds and trash traps come in.
- Detention Ponds: Just cleaning out detention ponds when they need it would help a lot. Screens on the outfall pipes on every detention pond would help keep it out of creeks. That would at least be like stopping manholes from leaking. So that’s a step up from just cleaning up the trash once it gets into waterways, but it still does not stop the trash at its source.
- Trash traps: They can keep trash from getting farther down a creek or into a river. But they are like cleaning up sewage after it has already run down the creek.
The model we drew from had this level as Incineration, but no incinerator in the U.S. actually thoroughly destroys trash like some European ones do.
So we renamed this level to be Containment.
Resource Recovery: This is a good level to put enforcing trash ordinances.
And ordinance violation notices to property owners or managers can be
a powerful educational method, even before applying fines or enforced cleanups or even criminal penalties.
- Valdosta, for example, has excellent trash ordinances that require landowners not to let trash escape their property (no matter where it came from), and trash cans strategically placed per number of parking spaces. Enforcing such ordinances could stop a lot of trash from getting into waterways even before it gets to detention ponds or trash traps.
- Valdosta City Marshals sent notices to all parking lot owners in 2023, and they are following up with citations and even court if necessary. Already there is some visible change, such as trash cans in Target’s parking lot.
However, the city’s own parking lot at Five Points still has no trash cans.
And a year after WWALS videoed
the Valdosta Mayor at Hightower Creek on St. Augustine Road,
there is still no trash can at the bottom of that parking lot.
Policy: Local governments have plenty of opportunities for planning, zoning, and business permit renewals.
For example, the 2021 Update to the Lowndes County Comprehensive Plan includes:
2. Needs and Opportunities,
6. Natural Resources
- p.18, Needs: Capture single-use plastic waste and control litter
- p. 19, Opportunities: A behavior change program could be introduced to inform residents of the risks of littering
- AP-35 Projects – 91.220(d), p. 90, Community Sidewalk Project: Support Housing Rehabilitation and Neighborhood Revitalization through the removal of slum and blighted conditions and providing designated collection points for bulk trash and vacant lot and public space debris to improve the habitability of housing and support neighborhood improvement. (That was supposed to happen by 6/30/2021, but only in Designated Revitalization Areas; seems like the whole city could use it.)
- 6. Community Policies, p. 44, 6. Natural Resources
- Goal: Promote and protect natural resources and opportunities for recreation through public access and conservation. A key component of this goal is the desire for community beautification of public and private land through behavior change to reduce littering and through an increased focus on landscaping maintenance of property.
- Policies: 6.25 Increase the number of trash traps along waterways and continue to collect litter.
Since Valdosta Mayor and Council approved that Plan, they already voted to deploy more trash traps. Now they just need to engineer them, find the money, and do it.
- After more than two years of politics, they have made a start at doing that with the Sugar Creek WaterGoat, cleaned out by volunteer Russell Allen McBride and family and friends. Russell is very clear that he cannot volunteer to clean out any more trash traps: the city must do that.
- Plus Valdosta’s home-engineered Lee Street Detention Pond trash trap. And once they upgraded the Sugar Creek WaterGoat, they moved the old one to Two Mile Branch at Berkeley Drive.
It’s refreshing to see some progress, although they have much more to do,
such as trash traps on Three Mile Branch, Cherry Creek, and in the Withlacoochee River at Langdale Park.
- 2. Needs and Opportunities, 6. Natural Resources
In Lowndes County, Georgia, in January 2023, WWALS helped win a rezoning case that stopped a proposed Dollar General
too near the Withlacoochee River.
- Much to our surprise, the Lowndes County Commission has changed their opinions since Dollar General started requesting rezonings back in 2012. Massive opposition by local landowners and others surely helped. This time, the Commissioners unanimously denied the rezoning and said that was the right decision. Maybe there are really enough Dollar Generals in one county.
- In 2021 there were heavily-attended meetings about a potential change to the Lowndes County Comprehensive Plan that would have decreased the size of the Agricultural and Forestry Character Areas, thus facilitating development where it does not belong, risking more trash near more creeks and rivers. The result was the Plan did not get changed, but a controversial rezoning was approved.
Yet the same Character Area figured prominently in the county’s 2023 denial of the above-mentioned rezoning.
The moral appears to be that citizens need to get involved early with planning, even before zoning.
In Union County, Florida, changes to the Comprehensive Plan to limit mining survived a lawsuit by the miners.
- It figured into the miners withdrawing their application in neighboring Bradford County.
- Strip mining might be considered one of the worst kinds of trash.
- In Lowndes County, Georgia, in January 2023, WWALS helped win a rezoning case that stopped a proposed Dollar General too near the Withlacoochee River.
- Business Permit Renewals:
Valdosta trash ordinances say controlling trash can figure into business permit renewals.
- Quite a few property owners need to be reminded of that.
Perhaps that education will make it unnecessary to actually refuse some permit renewals.
- Recycling is a scam In the diagram we drew from, this level was called Recycling. But recycling has always been a scam, with the vast majority of “recycled” materials going into landfills. Recycling as we know it today mostly serves as greenwashing of production of single-use packaging, for the profit of fossil fuel and fast food companies. So we renamed this level to be Policy.
- Planning: For example, the 2021 Update to the Lowndes County Comprehensive Plan includes:
- Substitute renewable straws, cups, bags, or boxes.
- Waterkeeper Alliance at its annual conference provides one steel drinking glass per attendee, good for free beer. I don’t drink much beer, but I have quite a collection of those. We use steel drinking glasses and cups at home because they don’t break and thus they don’t cause glass trash.
- Sam’s on Norman Drive in Valdosta switched from styrofoam cups to paper cups and biodegradable straws. That avoids styrofoam breaking down and the pieces being eaten by wildlife that cannot digest it. Paper is messy, but it doesn’t have that problem and it eventually biodegrades. Many businesses are providing durable reusable plastic to go containers.
- As a WWALS member said, “I was pleased with the rugged cardboard to go containers used at a restaurant in Tally recently. Those were GREAT!”
- WWALS demonstrated it can be done, by using all-compostable plates, cups, knifes, forks, and spoons at our WWALS River Revue in September 2023. It didn’t cost hardly anything extra.
If businesses do not switch to substitutes voluntarily,
local governments or states or even federal can require them.
- Bottle Deposits:
More than a dozen U.S. states still have bottle deposits:
California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Oregon, Vermont, (and Guam).
People can get typically ten cents back for each used bottle.
There is no reason Georgia and Florida cannot also adopt bottle deposits.
- Substitute renewable straws, cups, bags, or boxes.
Finally at this broad level of the pyramid we get to the most effective measure: ban single-use packaging.
- Colorado, Maine, Maryland, New York, New Jersey, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Washington, D.C. have banned styrofoam packaging. The U.K., Canada, and various countries have partial bans. The U.S. Interior Dept. is phasing out the sale of single-use plastics on U.S. public lands.
- France has banned many types and uses of single-use packaging. And McDonalds has led the way to better packaging in France. So there is no reason that fast food companies in the U.S. cannot do the same.
- In Florida, local governments can’t pass packaging bans, because the state passed a pre-emption bill.https://wwals.net/issues/right-to-clean-water/ But what if Right to Clean Water becomes a state constitutional amendment, next to other basic human rights like Free Speech? Florida voters, please sign and circulate the petition to get RTCW on the ballot.
In Georgia, a statewide pre-emption bill failed badly in the Georgia House in 2015.
The legislature is not likely to take up that losing proposition again, which means Valdosta, for example, could pass a plastic bag ban,
or a styrofoam ban. And Valdosta could lobby the legislature to do the same statewide.
The bottom four levels, Landfilling, Containment, Resource Recovery, and Policy, are well within the power of any local government.
Of the top two, bottle deposits is about the only example that local governments probably can not do anywhere. Although local governments can lobby state governments to implement bottle deposits.
Notice there is no Education level, because every level is an opportunity for education, especially of parking lot owners, business owners, and government officials, as well as the general public.
None of these solutions are perfect. Even banning single-use containers won’t stop some people from discarding tires or coolers. Although WWALS already helped reduce tire discards by getting six county and city governments to pass resolutions supporting a state trust fund bill that passed, putting a resolution on the ballot for a constitutional amendment to stop diversions of fees from for example tire sales. The voters overwhelmingly passed that amendment, so now tire amnesty events by counties and cities are well-funded again. No number of cleanups could have gotten as many tires out of creeks and rivers.
No single location is adequate for stopping trash. It’s a non-point-source problem.
But so was human fecal waste before sewage systems. Cities and counties don’t let people defecate on the street, and they don’t tolerate landowners letting sewage get into waterways. It’s time for them to treat trash the same way.
For more on the trash situation, see:
-jsq, John S. Quarterman, Suwannee RIVERKEEPER®