Tag Archives: north Florida

Sugar Creek Trash 2022-01-15

Trash lined both sides of Sugar Creek all the way to the Withlacoochee River Saturday.

Trash jams behind their houses probably don’t make people very happy in Wood Valley subdivision half a mile down the river.

At the proposed site of Troupville River Camp and Troupville River Park, trashjams at the Little River Confluence make those projects less viable, despite promotion by One Valdosta-Lowndes, VLPRA, Valdosta, Lowndes County, and WWALS.

Floridians do not thank Valdosta for this trash gift, which trash washes downstream into Florida and the Suwannee River, onwards to the Gulf.

[Trash down Sugar Creek and Withlacoochee River]
Trash down Sugar Creek and Withlacoochee River

This problem has been known to the City of Valdosta since at least 2010, when it finished its Stormwater Master Plan (SWMP). The SWMP describes and includes a photograph of the notorious Sugar Creek trashjam near the bottom of the Salty Snapper property. Continue reading

Chervil Drive Distributary, Withlacoochee River 2022-01-13

Another Withlacoochee River distributary to a sinkhole! This one revealed by WWALS member and archaeologist Tom Baird. I’m calling it Chervil Drive Distributary because we don’t know any more traditional or official name for it. It’s downstream from the Chitty Bend East Distributary and on the other side of the river.

[Chervil Distributary, Withlacoochee River, Madison County, FL]
Chervil Distributary, Withlacoochee River, Madison County, FL, in the WWALS map of the Withlacoochee and Little River Water Trail (WLRWT).

Another interesting feature is further down river on the right bank about a mile above Madison Blue Springs. At flood, water pours through a gap in the limestone bank and floods a large channel that goes back to a deep sink. The weight of water in the past broke through the ceiling of a cavern and created a beautiful, clear, good-sized swimming hole. It was evidently a popular swimming and picnic spot in the past. Don’t know the correct name of the feature; my wife and I call it “Thanksgiving Spring”, because we found it while hiking around one Thanksgiving Day. However, it’s not a spring (no water comes from it), but an opening to the water table. Nice and cool on a hot day. J

Continue reading

More than 40 scientists oppose strip mine near Okefenokee Swamp 2021-11-30

Dozens of scientists across the U.S. have written a letter spelling out dangers of strip mining near the Okefenokee Swamp.

They couldn’t cover everything, but they found scientific evidence running from habitat loss, fire risk, and lowering the Floridan Aquifer, to dark skies, tourism, and economy, including: “Mining will impact the water quality of the Okefenokee Swamp and downstream rivers, including the St Mary’s and Suwannee Rivers, through release of stored chemicals, including toxic heavy metals.”

You can mention the scientists’ letter when you ask the Georgia Environmental Protection Division to deny the miners’ permit applications.

[Heavy Mineral Mining In The Atlantic Coastal Plain-0006]
The mine site is labeled Saunders Tract in the middle of this map. See Figure 5.

The situation is no different from when DuPont tried to mine next to the Swamp twenty years ago. As Gordon Jackson points out in The Brunswick News (December 9, 2021), “The argument two decades ago and today is there has never been a comprehensive study to show how much of an impact, if any, disturbing the layered soil would have on the refuge.”

Naturally, the miners disagreed, according to Emily Jones for WABE (December 1, 2021):

We are interested in seeing the scientific studies behind this group’s collective point of view. Did they do any? All of the so-called studies by opponents we’ve seen to date have been nothing more than flimsy, results-oriented efforts. We have done extensive modeling and studies by top hydrologists which have been extensively peer reviewed.

Until we have their science to review, we will classify this as more hysteria and not an educated perspective. The land upon which we will be working is about three miles away from the edge of the refuge. Sand that is lifted from the earth is essentially sifted and replaced within a few days. The mined property will be replanted with native shrubs and trees and placed into conservation.

Actually, the miners’ studies have not been peer-reviewed, as the scientists point out in their letter. Many of the scientists of the letter have far longer records of studying the Swamp than anybody Twin Pines Minerals has paid to do studies. And none of the letter scientists were paid for their opinions.

And actually, as the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service answered then-Senator David Purdue back on November 21, 2019:

The initial project location is the farthest that mining activity would be from the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) boundary and the Okefenokee Swamp. Any additional mining that occurs within the 12,000-acre permit area would be closer to the refuge. The northwest boundary of the permit area is within a half mile from the refuge boundary and 400 feet from the edge of the Okefenokee Swamp.

The burden of proof remains on the miners, not on everybody else.


The science and engineering community has composed and signed this letter about the most-likely effects of a mine near the Okefenokee Swamp.

Open letter to the Georgia Community:

Currently, the Georgia Environmental Protection Division (EPD) is reviewing permits that would authorize Twin Pines Minerals LLC, an Alabama mining company, to extract heavy minerals from Trail Ridge that forms the eastern border of the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge.

As members of the scientific community, we are in no position to opine on the ultimate question – whether the mine is in the best interests to the people of Georgia; however, we are sufficiently familiar with the environmental complexities of the region, including the water system and the geology, that we are compelled to voice our concerns about the environmental impacts of this mine.

Most of us have experience studying various aspects of the Okefenokee Swamp. All of us appreciate the need to preserve and protect iconic natural resources like the Okefenokee, which contribute so much to the recreational economy of South Georgia.

Although we are not opposed to mining per se, it does give us pause when a mine is located close to a water body that has major recreational, economic, environmental, and scientific value. The scientific evidence tells us:

  1. Trail Ridge acts as an earthen dam that creates the swamp itself. It does this by redirecting surface water drainage and slowing surficial groundwater movement, creating a backwater effect.
  2. Digging up Trail Ridge and then replacing it post mining will mix the existing layered sands, clays, and organic matter. This makes Trail Ridge more porous and thus more conductive to water, lessening its ability to hold water. This will alter groundwater flows through Trail Ridge and possibly lead to permanently lower water levels in the Swamp, depending on the spatial extent of such modification. The leakage through the modified Trail Ridge means that water pumped by the mining activity will largely derive from the Okefenokee Swamp.
  3. The mining permit proposes to pump 1.44 millions of gallons per day (MGD) of groundwater, which is the approximately daily need of a town of 19,000 people. This is projected to cause the water table in the Floridan Aquifer underlying the swamp to lower by as much as 9 feet. One-year post-pumping, the aquifer under the swamp will still be 1.3 feet lower than pre-pumping levels. This aquifer drawdown will create a downward hydraulic gradient from the Swamp and will cause a drop in Swamp water levels as a result.
  4. Mining will directly destroy wetlands and intermittent streams on Trail Ridge.

Therefore, we are concerned that by both destroying the structural integrity of Trail Ridge and pumping the underlying aquifer, the water level of Okefenokee Swamp will go down. Lowered water levels cause the following issues:

  1. Mining will make the Okefenokee Wilderness Canoe Trails impassable, eliminating access to the swamp for outdoor recreation and natural resources management.
  2. Mining will impact the tourism and economy dependent on Okefenokee Swamp.
  3. Mining will impact the water quality of the Okefenokee Swamp and downstream rivers, including the St Mary’s and Suwannee Rivers, through release of stored chemicals, including toxic heavy metals.
  4. Mining will increase fire risk to both the swamp and nearby private property, including timber and blueberry farms.
  5. Mining will destroy habitat for threatened and endangered species including gopher tortoises, indigo snakes, round-tailed muskrat, red-cockaded woodpecker, and possibly flatwoods salamanders, and habitat with the Swamp ecosystem. 
  6. As reported for other National Wildlife Refuges, nearby development activities will disturb habitat use by birds in Okefenokee.
  7. Mining will substantially degrade the dark night skies for which the area around the Swamp is famous and which attract amateur astronomers from long distances.

Twin Pines has produced reports to analyze the impact of the proposed mine. In our opinion, these studies are flawed in that:

  1. The groundwater recharge rate used to model groundwater flow is too low and improper;
  2. The connectivity of the underlying aquifers is not clearly established;
  3. These studies do not align with established research, and they have not been peer-reviewed.

The US Fish and Wildlife Service has stated:
“concerns that the proposed project may pose risks to the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge (OKENWR) and the natural environment due to the location, associated activities, and cumulative effects of similar projects in the area. We opine that the impacts are not sufficiently known and whatever is done may be permanent.”

Official documentation surrounding the mine and permit process can be found here: https://epd.georgia.gov/twin-pines

It is important to note that this proposal is for a “demonstration mine” and that Twin Pines plans to continue mining after this initial ask. Given the complexity of the water system and geology in and around the Okefenokee Swamp, this plan cannot be viewed in isolation, but rather as the start of a larger operation.

The geographic features underlying the area have been shaped over the past several thousand years by powerful coastal forces. Unless a comprehensive study is performed that takes a hard look at the hydrologic functions of this region, it will be impossible to say that the proposed mine, which would be located less than three miles from the Okefenokee, will not jeopardize the Swamp and surrounding areas. There is certainly no agreement that the mine will not be harmful – which should be enough to give pause to any mining permits.

Importantly, a majority of the established research supports the claims that mining close to the swamp has a high likelihood of causing permanent damage to the swamp and surrounding areas.

We stand by to offer additional scientific expertise and advice on this issue.

Until the science proves otherwise, we are opposed to mining in the vicinity of the Okefenokee Swamp.

In Science,

  1. Amy Sharma, PhD, Vice President, Science for Georgia
  2. Carla Atkinson, PhD in Ecology and Evolution
  3. Jon Benstead, Professor of Biological Sciences
  4. Bradley J. Bergstrom, PhD, Professor of Biology, Valdosta State University
  5. Emily S Bernhardt, James B. Duke Professor of Biology
  6. Marsha C. Black, PhD Ecology, Assoc Prof Emeritus, UGA
  7. Jamie Bucholz, PhD student in Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama
  8. Aram JK Calhoun, Professor Emerita Wetland Ecology and Conservation
  9. Ron Carroll, PhD Ecology, Professor Emeritus University of Georgia
  10. Alan P. Covich, PhD in Ecology, Professor Emeritus, University of Georgia
  11. Christopher Craft, Janet Duey Professor of Rural Land Policy, O’Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington
  12. Evan H. DeLucia, G. William Arends Professor Emeritus of Plant Biology
  13. Ms. Paula Denissen
  14. Jason Evans, Institute for Water and Environmental Resilience, Stetson University
  15. David W Hicks, Georgia PG 001624, U.S. Geological Survey (ret), Jones Environmental Research Center (ret)
  16. Charles Hopkinson, Professor Emeritus, UGA, Athens, GA
  17. Garrett Hopper, PhD in Biology, resident of Tuscaloosa, AL
  18. C. Rhett Jackson, John Porter Stevens Distinguished Professor of Water Resources
  19. Betty Jean Jordan, PE, resident of Monticello, GA
  20. Elizabeth King, PhD, Associate Professor of Ecology, resident of Athens, GA
  21. Lora L.Smith, PhD in Wildlife Ecology, resident of Bainbridge, GA
  22. Karen McGlathery, Professor, Director Environmental Resilience Institute, University of Virginia
  23. J. Patrick Megonigal, PhD, Affiliate Faculty George Mason University
  24. Jacqueline Mohan, J. Mohan, PhD in Ecology, Athens, GA resident
  25. Richard W. Morgan, Richard W. Morgan, Wetlands Biologist, Retired, US Army Corps of Engineers
  26. James Morris, Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Biological and Marine Sciences
  27. Michael G. Noll, PhD, Professor of Geography, Valdosta State University (VSU)
  28. Brian Orland, Retired Distinguished Professor of Landscape Architecture, resident of Athens, GA
  29. Michael Pace, Professor in Ecology
  30. Rena Ann Peck, M.S., Ecologist & Executive Director of Georgia River Network
  31. Francis Edward Putz, Distinguished Professor of Biology, University of Florida
  32. JT Pynne, PhD, Wildlife Biologist, Georgia Wildlife Federation
  33. David Radcliffe, Professor Emeritus
  34. Todd Rasmussen, PhD, Hydrology & Water Resources, Watkinsville GA
  35. James Reichard, James Reichard, Ph.D., Professor of Geology, Georgia Southern University
  36. Randal E. Riebel, PE, F.NSPE, GSPE President
  37. Distinguished Research Professor, East Carolina University
  38. Amy Rosemond, PhD, Professor of Ecology, resident of Athens, GA
  39. William H Schlesinger, Dean, Emeritus, the Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University
  40. Brian Silliman, Rachel Carson Distinguished Professor of Marine Biology,
  41. Alan F. Smith, PhD, Professor (retired), Biology, Mercer University
  42. Shannon Speir, Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Alabama
  43. Ruth Ann Tesanovich, MLS(ASCP), Medical Laboratory Scientist, UGA (retired)
  44. Merritt Turetsky, PhD, Professor, University of Colorado Boulder
  45. Alan Weakley, Adjunct Associate Professor, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


  1. Clark JF, Stute M, Scholosser P, Drenkard S, and Bonani G. “A tracer study of the Floridan aquifer in southeastern Georgia: Implication for groundwater flow and paleoclimate.” Water Resources Research. Vol 33, No 2, pp 281-289. Feb 1997.
  2. Coleman Wasik JK, et al. “The Effects of hydrologic fluctuation and sulfate regeneration on mercury cycling in an experimental peatland.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. Sept 4, 2015. Pp 1697-1715.
  3. Kitchens, S and Rasmussen TC. “Hydraulic Evidence for Vertical Flow from Okefenokee Swamp to the Underlying Floridan Aquifer in Southeast Georgia” Proceedings to the 1995 Georgia Water Resources Conference. Apr 11 & 12, 1995. https://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/handle/1853/44003/KitchensS-RasmussenT-95.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  4. Loftin, C. “Okefenokee Swamp Hydrology” Proceedings to the 1997 Georgia Water Resources Conference. March 20-22, 1997. https://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/handle/1853/45110/LoftinC-97.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  5. Peck, RA, Bennett, E. “Okefenokee in the Balance: Protecting the Swamp for Georgia’s Climate Resilience.” Poster Presentation at Georgia Climate Conference 2021 (https://georgiaclimateconference.org/) and Georgia Water Resource Conference 2021 (https://rivercenter.uga.edu/georgia-water-resource-conference-2021-schedule/). https://sciencelookup.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/RenaPeck_EliseBennett_Poster_FINAL_RevMap_OPA-Version.pdf
  6. US Fish and Wildlife Service Letter to US Army Corps of Engineers. May 28, 2020. https://sciencelookup.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/2020.05.28-FWS-to-Corps.pdf
  7. United States, U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Evolution of Trail Ridge Eolian Heavy-Mineral Sand and Underlying Peat, Northern Florida, Eric Force and Fredrick J. Rich. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1499, (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1989), https://doi.org/10.3133/pp1499.
  8. Wellhead Analysis Element Model. https://www.epa.gov/ceam/wellhead-analytic-element-model-whaem. Released June 2018.

Endangered Species Information:

  1. Georgia Subject 391-4-10 Protection of Endangered, Threatened, Rare, or Unusual Species. http://rules.sos.ga.gov/gac/391-4-10
  2. Nature Serve Explorer: Listing of Species Range. https://explorer.natureserve.org/Search
  3. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge: Road-cockaded Woodpeckers. (Accessed Dec 20, 2021) https://www.fws.gov/uploadedFiles/RCW2016.pdf

Questions or Comments?

Please contact Science for Georgia using the form below.

In The Press




On Dec 20, 2021 – the listing of endangered species was updated to include the round-tailed muskrat and red-cockaded woodpecker.

On Jan 6, 2022 – the signatories were updated with new signers.

Don’t forget to write to the Georgia Environmental Protection Division, or your statehouse delegation, or members of Congress, and you can ask your city council or county commission to pass a resolution against the mine.

Figure 5: Heavy Mineral Mining In The Atlantic Coastal Plain-0006 Trail Ridge heavy mineral deposits, including Folkston West and Saunders Tracts in L. Pirkle, Fredric & A. Pirkle, William & Rich, Fredrick. (2013). Heavy-Mineral Mining in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and What Deposit Locations Tell Us about Ancient Shorelines. Journal of Coastal Research. 69. 154-175. 10.2112/SI_69_11. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275619883_Heavy-Mineral_Mining_in_the_Atlantic_Coastal_Plain_and_What_Deposit_Locations_Tell_Us_about_Ancient_Shorelines

 -jsq, John S. Quarterman, Suwannee RIVERKEEPER®

You can join this fun and work by becoming a WWALS member today!

Jennings Bridge, Alapaha River 2022-01-05

Ken Sulak, retired from USGS, sent this update on the Alapaha River bridge site 0.8 miles downstream from Sullivan Launch Sasser Landing, or 0.64 miles downstream from the CR 150 bridge. Plus a likely old ferry site, and maybe a previous location of Sullivan Launch Sasser Landing.

[Jennings Bridge, Alapaha River, c. 1989]
Jennings Bridge, Alapaha River, c. 1989 –Florida Memory

This is the site of the ‘Jennings Bridge’, a steel through-truss bridge, apparently built around 1902-1903. Some online bridge websites state that this is the oldest steel/iron highway bridge in Florida. But, that is doubtful—if the construction date I have is correct. For example, the ‘Adams Bridge’ aka ‘Steel Bridge’ in White Springs was built in 1891, and the original 2-span bowstring style bridge, the ‘Lee Bridge’ over the Withlacoochee (right where the current CR-141 bridge is located) may have been built in the late 1880s. I would like to explore the riverbank and look at what remains of the bridge supports. If there are cutoff Lally columns, then the Jennings Bridge was probably indeed built around 1902-1903. But if the supports are old limerock concrete or brick, then it would have been built before 1898.

[Jennings Bridge in WWALS ARWT map]
Jennings Bridge in the WWALS Alapaha River Water Trail (ARWT) map.

Anyway, I was just writing to note the name of the Jennings Bridge—you might want to add that to your interactive map. Hinton’s 1976 History of Hamilton County calls it by that name, as well as Florida Memory. Some folks say it collapsed in the late 1970s, one article says 1981, Florida Memory Archive has several photos of the falling-apart, but still-standing bridge dated 1989.

Continue reading

Video: Turner Bridge to FL 6, Suwannee River 2021-12-16

Here’s a video of the mid-December 2021 Ken Sulak Suwannee River paddle, the part from Turner Bridge to Cypress Creek South Launch at FL 6.

FL 6 bridge, Suwannee River 2021-12-16

The images are ten seconds apart. You can see Mike Byerly’s canoe parked over one of the Lally columns of Turner Bridge in the river. You can see Ken Sulak drop a magnet to confirm that it is metal. Continue reading

Bad US 84 Wednesday, good Withlacoochee River Thursday 2022-01-13

Rains last weekend got contamination into the Withlacoochee River upstream at US 84, still showing up Wednesday in Valdosta results. But all the WWALS results for Thursday and downstream Wednesday showed acceptable low levels of E. coli.

So I’d paddle and fish in the Withlacoochee River today. Not so sure about swimming: it’s cold.

[Chart, River, Swim Guide]
Chart, River, Swim Guide

As you can see, Valdosta got bad results at US 84 for both Monday and Wednesday. Continue reading

No Build: FDOT toll road heading north towards the Suwannee Basin 2022-01-13

Floridians, please go to the Florida Department of Transportation’s Northern Turnpike Extension web page and tell FDOT we don’t need any more toll roads. Here’s where you can say No Build:

Doesn’t matter that No Build isn’t listed as an option. Tell them anyway.

[Routes with No Build sign]
Routes with No Build sign

Please also ask your state legislative delegation to stop this boondogle.

This new push for an unnecessary toll road is ignoring previous county and city resolutions against it. So ask them to pass another one, or a new one if they didn’t before. Here’s a draft resulution by the No Roads to Ruin coalition (Suwannee Riverkeeper is a member of NRTR).

Dunnellon already passed a resolution on Monday, December 21, 2021. Continue reading

Supreme Court ruling on underground water could affect proposed titanium strip mine too near the Okefenokee Swamp

Here’s yet another reason you can cite when you ask the Georgia Enviromental Protection Division (GA-EPD) to stop the mining proposal by Twin Pines Minerals (TPM) to strip mine near the Okefenokee Swamp, above the Floridan Aquifer.

David Pendered, Saporta Report, January 3, 2022 5:13 pm, Okefenokee Swamp mining proposal could be affected by Supreme Court ruling,

The proposal to mine sand near the Okefenokee Swamp could be affected by a groundbreaking ruling on water rights issued by the U.S. Supreme Court.

[Figure 8. Drawdown 2930 days]
Figure 8. Drawdown 2930 days

For the first time, justices have determined the same laws that apply to water flowing above ground apply to water in multi-state underground aquifers.

“This court has never before held that an interstate aquifer is subject to equitable apportionment,” Chief Justice John Roberts wrote in a unanimous opinion issued Nov. 22, 2021. This doctrine “aims to produce a fair allocation of a shared water resource between two or more States,” according to the ruling.

The ruling sets a legal foundation to manage future disputes over the usage of interstate groundwater. This issue is expected to arise more frequently as drought and climate change poise to alter the United States’ traditional water supplies and challenge agreements among governments to share water.

This ruling could be brought into play at the proposed mine near the Okefenokee, in part because of the amount of water to be extracted for mining operations from the four-state Floridan Aquifer. For that to happen, a party that has standing to file a lawsuit would have to do so on behalf of one or more of the four states that are above the Floridan Aquifer — Florida, Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina. Two of these states have previously litigated Georgia’s use of water from the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers. The Supreme Court ruled against Florida’s claim in April.

Continue reading

Chitty Bend East Distributary, Withlacoochee River –Shirley Kokidko 2022-01-07

River scout Shirley Kokidko went to investigate Mystery: Withlacoochee River Distributary 2021-01-01 and came back with these pictures from Friday, January 7, 2022.

Remember: it’s not safe to paddle in there.

[Distributary, Swallet, Sinkhole]
Distributary, Swallet, Sinkhole

Chitty Bend East Distributary

The Withlacoochee River was 57.9′ NAVD88 (11.4′) on the Pinetta gauge. Continue reading

Pictures: Dead River Sink 2021-11-07

Thrice rescheduled because of water levels and weather, the Dead River Sink Hike drew a small but attentive crowd to listen to Practicing Geologist Dennis Price and see the Dead River Confluence, the Dead River, and the Dead River Sink, with cypress, tupelo, oaks, pines, and beautyberry along the way, on a warm November day.

[Jennings Bluff Landing, Dead River Confluence, Dead River Sink, Banners]
Jennings Bluff Landing, Dead River Confluence, Dead River Sink, Banners

Jennings Bluff Landing

[Dennis Price on the steps, 13:59:52, 30.5798772, -83.0391141]
Dennis Price on the steps, 13:59:52, 30.5798772, -83.0391141

Click on any small picture for a larger one.

Dennis explains it all.

[A small but engaged audience, 14:46:33, 30.5843159, -83.0454865]
A small but engaged audience, 14:46:33, 30.5843159, -83.0454865

Let’s hike

[Dennis Price observes the path, 14:02:36, 30.5798475, -83.0393338]
Dennis Price observes the path, 14:02:36, 30.5798475, -83.0393338

Alapaha River

[Limestone banks of the Alapaha River, 14:49:39, 30.5846132, -83.0456168]
Limestone banks of the Alapaha River, 14:49:39, 30.5846132, -83.0456168

[Look up, 14:52:50, 30.5846156, -83.0465832]
Look up, 14:52:50, 30.5846156, -83.0465832

[Dottie likes this cypress, 14:58:13, 30.5846535, -83.0475477]
Dottie likes this cypress, 14:58:13, 30.5846535, -83.0475477

Wildlife did not leave this trash.

[Arrow disapproves this trash, 15:06:51, 30.5836245, -83.0507596]
Arrow disapproves this trash, 15:06:51, 30.5836245, -83.0507596

This way to the Confluence.

[Gateposts, 15:07:12, 30.5836397, -83.0508257]
Gateposts, 15:07:12, 30.5836397, -83.0508257

Dead River Confluence

[Dead River Confluence, 15:08:01, 30.5837354, -83.0517246]
Dead River Confluence, 15:08:01, 30.5837354, -83.0517246

[Honeybun likes it, 15:12:08, 30.5836829, -83.0517880]
Honeybun likes it, 15:12:08, 30.5836829, -83.0517880

[Flowing into the woods, 15:12:49, 30.5838238, -83.0527914]
Flowing into the woods, 15:12:49, 30.5838238, -83.0527914

[Narrow path, 15:13:25, 30.5837308, -83.0528334]
Narrow path, 15:13:25, 30.5837308, -83.0528334

[Green reflections, 15:18:57, 30.5837279, -83.0538030]
Green reflections, 15:18:57, 30.5837279, -83.0538030

Dead River Sink

[Our goal in sight, 15:32:13, 30.5820386, -83.0516880]
Our goal in sight, 15:32:13, 30.5820386, -83.0516880

[Gretchen Quarterman, Dead River Sink, 15:33:34, 30.5820036, -83.0516436]
Gretchen Quarterman, Dead River Sink, 15:33:34, 30.5820036, -83.0516436

You can actually drive almost all the way there.

[Trail to road, 15:39:43, 30.5820651, -83.0507780]
Trail to road, 15:39:43, 30.5820651, -83.0507780

This is all of us.

[Banner selfie, 161318, 16:13:18, 30.5797437, -83.0393327]
Banner selfie, 161318, 16:13:18, 30.5797437, -83.0393327

There are more pictures on the WWALS website.

For more WWALS outings, see https://wwals.net/outings/. Members also get a list in the monthly membership newsletter Tannin Times.

 -jsq, John S. Quarterman, Suwannee RIVERKEEPER®

You can join this fun and work by becoming a WWALS member today!