Floyds Island 1838, Hebard Cabin 1925, Okefenokee Swamp

Answers to some popular questions about Floyds Island, up the Middle Fork of the Suwannee River in the Okefenokee Swamp.

Meanwhile, you can help stop a proposed strip mine near the Swamp:
https://wwals.net/issues/titanium-mining

[Collage, Floyds Island]
Collage, Floyds Island

Who was Floyds Island named for?

The Okefenokee was a Creek hunting ground in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Briefly in 1836 and for most of 1838 theSecond Seminole War in Florida extended into the Okefenokee. Roads and forts were built around the perimeter of the swamp, and Georgia militia and U.S. army troops patrolled intensively. They burned down a Seminole village on an island that they subsequently renamed Floyds Island, for Charles Rinaldo Floyd. In response to this violence, the Seminole began to leave the swamp in 1838, but skirmishes continued to occur along the Georgia-Florida boundary as late as 1840.

C.T. Trowell, New Georgia Encyclopedia, Originally published Sep 20, 2002, Last edited Feb 23, 2022, Human History of the Okefenokee Swamp.

Who was Charles Rinaldo Floyd?

Charles Rinaldo Floyd, the third child and second son of General John Floyd, followed his father into battle, plantation society, and the political arena in the early nineteenth century.

During the Second Seminole War (1835-42), Floyd was most famous for his excursion into the Okefenokee Swamp in the winter of 1838-39, although this campaign has often been mistakenly credited to his father.

[Charles Rinaldo Floyd Courtesy of Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries.]
Charles Rinaldo Floyd, Courtesy of Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries.
Found in Megan Kate Nelson, Charles Rinaldo Floyd, New Georgia Encyclopedia, last modified Dec 23, 2016.

So, Floyds Island is named for the man who burned down the Seminole village that used to be there: Charles Rinaldo Floyd.

But he did not build the cabin, says Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge on facebook, November 11, 2018:

This historic cabin was built by the Hebard Cypress Company and is now on the National Register of Historic Places.

The documentation for that reveals that Daniel Hebard built the cabin in 1925, when his family owned the Okefenokee Swamp to log, primarily for cypress.

[Table 1. Chronology of Alterations to and Use of the Hebard Camp.]
Table 1. Chronology of Alterations to and Use of the Hebard Camp.

It was repaired several times over the decades.

There were also several other buildings.

[The Cook’s House, Billy Spaulding’s House & Garden, Guide Huts]
The Cook’s House, Billy Spaulding’s House & Garden, Guide Huts

The Indian mound with the gully for the former cypress logging railroad is shown on several maps.

[Map 4: Floyds Island, Sketch Map, 1993.]
Map 4: Floyds Island, Sketch Map, 1993.

This is what the railroad looked like.

[Photo 2: Main line in Okefenokee between the Swamp’s edge and Cravens Hammock constructed with a pile driver - 10inch caps (hewn 2 sides) fastened to piles with % iron drift bolts - 7 bents to 39-foot rail (Hopkins, 45 Years with the Okefenokee Swamp, 1947, RG-50-2-33, S.W. McCallie, March 1915, Georgia Department of Archives and History, Atlanta, Georgia)]
Photo 2: Main line in Okefenokee between the Swamp’s edge and Cravens Hammock constructed with a pile driver – 10

This is what it was for.

[Photo 5: First Log, 1909. Overhead skidder cleans up about 28 acres from one spar or “head tree.” Pulls in and loads logs at the same time (Photo by Dolan, Waycross, Georgia and in Hopkins, 45 Years with the Okefenokee Swamp, 1947)]
Photo 5: First Log, 1909. Overhead skidder cleans up about 28 acres from one spar or “head tree.” Pulls in and loads logs at the same time (Photo by Dolan, Waycross, Georgia and in Hopkins, 45 Years with the Okefenokee Swamp, 1947)

Here is the railroad through the Indian mound.

[Photo 6: View of the railroad across Floyds Island (McQueen and Mizell 1926).]
Photo 6: View of the railroad across Floyds Island (McQueen and Mizell 1926).

Yes, there were burials in the mound. Or some mound on Floyds Island.

[Boy Scouts from Albany visited island in 1924 and excavated one of the mounds. They recovered beads, arrowheads, pottery, shells, and two skeletons.]
Boy Scouts from Albany visited island in 1924 and excavated one of the mounds. They recovered beads, arrowheads, pottery, shells, and two skeletons.

Hebard Cabin looked pretty much the same in 1929 as today, except the cookhouse was knocked down in the 1970s.

[Photo 9: Mr. Dan Hebard’s Hunting Lodge on Floyds Island. Billy Spaulding is sitting on the steps. The Cook’s Cabin is on the right (Hill, “Okefenokee Swamp,” Inspection News, April 1929).]
Photo 9: Mr. Dan Hebard’s Hunting Lodge on Floyds Island. Billy Spaulding is sitting on the steps. The Cook’s Cabin is on the right (Hill, “Okefenokee Swamp,” Inspection News, April 1929).

For much more history of the island and the attempts to preserve the Okefenokee Swamp while logging was going on and while others were trying to dig a canal through it or to run roads across it in two different directions, see this article by C.T. Trowell.

[Supplement A: Trowell, C.T., 1998 “Seeking a Sanctuary: A Chronicle of Efforts to Preserve the Okefenokee.” Okefenokee Wildlife League, Special Publication No. 6.]
Supplement A: Trowell, C.T., 1998 “Seeking a Sanctuary: A Chronicle of Efforts to Preserve the Okefenokee.” Okefenokee Wildlife League, Special Publication No. 6.

It starts with “Roland M. Harper called for the preservation of swamps in 1906 and 1909. He listed their importance as headwaters for streams, refuges for wildlife against their extermination by hunters, natural research laboratories, and lastly, for their beauty.”

Few people listened to Roland’s words. “But they ignited the interest of Francis Harper, his younger brother, and a group of biologists at Cornell University. In 1912, these scientists began a series of biological explorations of the Okefenokee Swamp that continued for over three decades.”

The story gets more complicated from there, but the NWR got established by Executive Order of U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1937. “In 1974 the sanctuary that had been sought and created was secured. The Okefenokee Swamp was designated a National Natural Landmark in September 1974. A month later President Gerald Ford signed the law creating the Okefenokee National Wilderness Area. In 1981 the wilderness canoe trails in the Okefenokee were designated to be part of the National Wilderness Trail System.”

Hebard Cabin on Floyds Island is mostly preserved, but it is a relic of the logging that destroyed almost all the original forest cover of the Okefenokee Swamp, and the island’s name is a relic of the earlier expulsion of the Seminoles.

[Floyd's Cabin Kitchen to Center Rm 8/94]
Floyd’s Cabin Kitchen to Center Rm 8/94

Here you can see the railroad route from Jones Island (where Stephen C. Foster State Park is) to Billys Island and on to Floyds Island.

[Railroad from Billys Island to Floyds Island, with Indian Mound and Cabin]
Railroad from Billys Island to Floyds Island, with Indian Mound and Cabin

There are more maps and pictures below.

The history is complicated and sad in many ways, but now the Okefenokee Swamp is mostly a Wilderness Area in a National Wildlife Refuge.

Which does nothing to stop mining nearby, but you can help stop that.
https://wwals.net/issues/titanium-mining

 -jsq, John S. Quarterman, Suwannee RIVERKEEPER®

You can help with clean, swimmable, fishable, drinkable, water in the 10,000-square-mile Suwannee River Basin in Florida and Georgia by becoming a WWALS member today!
https://wwals.net/donations/

Maps

[Map 1: Section of Billys Island, Georgia quadrangle showing the approximate boundaries of the Floyds Island National Register property (U.S.G.S. 1994).]
Map 1: Section of Billys Island, Georgia quadrangle showing the approximate boundaries of the Floyds Island National Register property (U.S.G.S. 1994).
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Pics

[Photo 1: S.W. McCallie, J.E. Brantly, and one of the Lee boys camping on Floyds Island, March 1915 (R.G 50-2-33 Georgia Department of Archives and History, Atlanta, Georgia).]
Photo 1: S.W. McCallie, J.E. Brantly, and one of the Lee boys camping on Floyds Island, March 1915 (R.G 50-2-33 Georgia Department of Archives and History, Atlanta, Georgia).
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[Photo 2: Main line in Okefenokee between the Swamp’s edge and Cravens Hammock constructed with a pile driver - 10inch caps (hewn 2 sides) fastened to piles with % iron drift bolts - 7 bents to 39-foot rail (Hopkins, 45 Years with the Okefenokee Swamp, 1947, RG-50-2-33, S.W. McCallie, March 1915, Georgia Department of Archives and History, Atlanta, Georgia)]
Photo 2: Main line in Okefenokee between the Swamp’s edge and Cravens Hammock constructed with a pile driver – 10inch caps (hewn 2 sides) fastened to piles with % iron drift bolts – 7 bents to 39-foot rail (Hopkins, 45 Years with the Okefenokee Swamp, 1947, RG-50-2-33, S.W. McCallie, March 1915, Georgia Department of Archives and History, Atlanta, Georgia)
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[Photo 3: Beginning “cribbing” track in virgin cypress in Okefenokee, 1909 (Hopkins, 45 Years with the Okefenokee Swamp, 1947).]
Photo 3: Beginning “cribbing” track in virgin cypress in Okefenokee, 1909 (Hopkins, 45 Years with the Okefenokee Swamp, 1947).
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[Photo 4: One method of railroad construction in Okefenokee, foundation ready for stringers (Hopkins, 45 Years with the Okefenokee Swamp, 1947)]
Photo 4: One method of railroad construction in Okefenokee, foundation ready for stringers (Hopkins, 45 Years with the Okefenokee Swamp, 1947)
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[Photo 5: First Log, 1909. Overhead skidder cleans up about 28 acres from one spar or “head tree.” Pulls in and loads logs at the same time (Photo by Dolan, Waycross, Georgia and in Hopkins, 45 Years with the Okefenokee Swamp, 1947)]
Photo 5: First Log, 1909. Overhead skidder cleans up about 28 acres from one spar or “head tree.” Pulls in and loads logs at the same time (Photo by Dolan, Waycross, Georgia and in Hopkins, 45 Years with the Okefenokee Swamp, 1947)
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[Photo 6: View of the railroad across Floyds Island (McQueen and Mizell 1926).]
Photo 6: View of the railroad across Floyds Island (McQueen and Mizell 1926).
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[Photo 7: Results of a day's hunt on Floyds Island. From right to left are Hamp Mizell, Dr. W. T. Revis, John M Hopkins, Sam Mizell, Perry Barber, N. Godwin, and Alex Quarterman (McQueen and Mizell, 1926).]
Photo 7: Results of a day’s hunt on Floyds Island. From right to left are Hamp Mizell, Dr. W. T. Revis, John M Hopkins, Sam Mizell, Perry Barber, N. Godwin, and Alex Quarterman (McQueen and Mizell, 1926).
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[Photo 8: Uncle Billy Spaulding (left), at his little home on Floyds Island in the Okefenokee swamp (McQueen, Atlanta Journal, 1927).]
Photo 8: Uncle Billy Spaulding (left), at his little home on Floyds Island in the Okefenokee swamp (McQueen, Atlanta Journal, 1927).
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[Photo 9: Mr. Dan Hebard’s Hunting Lodge on Floyds Island. Billy Spaulding is sitting on the steps. The Cook’s Cabin is on the right (Hill, “Okefenokee Swamp,” Inspection News, April 1929).]
Photo 9: Mr. Dan Hebard’s Hunting Lodge on Floyds Island. Billy Spaulding is sitting on the steps. The Cook’s Cabin is on the right (Hill, “Okefenokee Swamp,” Inspection News, April 1929).
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[Photo 10: Hunting lodge in grove of live oaks and magnolias on Floyds Island. Members of the visiting Senate Committee on Wildlife at the lodge, 1931 (Hopkins, 45 Years with the Okefenokee Swamp, 1947)]
Photo 10: Hunting lodge in grove of live oaks and magnolias on Floyds Island. Members of the visiting Senate Committee on Wildlife at the lodge, 1931 (Hopkins, 45 Years with the Okefenokee Swamp, 1947)
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[Photo 11: Once a hunting lodge, now an abandoned camp on desolate Floyds Island (Bisson, Savannah Morning News, March 16, 1958) The Cook’s Cabin is on the right.]
Photo 11: Once a hunting lodge, now an abandoned camp on desolate Floyds Island (Bisson, Savannah Morning News, March 16, 1958) The Cook’s Cabin is on the right.
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[Photo 12: The Hebard Cabin on Floyds Island, Summer 1956. The Cook’s Cabin is on the right (ONWR, Narrative Report, Sept.-Dec. 1957).]
Photo 12: The Hebard Cabin on Floyds Island, Summer 1956. The Cook’s Cabin is on the right (ONWR, Narrative Report, Sept.-Dec. 1957).
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[Photo 13: Cook’s Cabin, looking north, in 1957. It was torn down in 1974 (ONWR, Narrative Report, Sept.-Dec. 1957; Costello to Burkhart, April 30, 1993),]
Photo 13: Cook’s Cabin, looking north
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[Photo 14: Rear view of the Hebard Cabin, 1957. Note that the back porch extended to the rear of the house in 1957. It was removed and replaced in 1974 (ONWR, Narrative Report, Sept.-Dec. 1957; Costello to Burkhart, April 30, 1993).]
Photo 14: Rear view of the Hebard Cabin, 1957. Note that the back porch extended to the rear of the house in 1957. It was removed and replaced in 1974 (ONWR, Narrative Report, Sept.-Dec. 1957; Costello to Burkhart, April 30, 1993).
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[Photo 15: Hebard Cabin, looking east. The back porch has been removed and replaced by a small stoop (ONWR, 38-OKE-70, Narrative Report, 1979).]
Photo 15: Hebard Cabin, looking east. The back porch has been removed and replaced by a small stoop (ONWR, 38-OKE-70, Narrative Report, 1979).
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[Photo 16: Boardwalk from Floyds Island to Chase Prairie, ca. 1929 (Charles Bassett Photographic Collection).]
Photo 16: Boardwalk from Floyds Island to Chase Prairie, ca. 1929 (Charles Bassett Photographic Collection).
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[Photo 17: The privy, not a contributing structure, located behind the Hebard Cabin (Trowell, December 1994). This privy has been removed new one has been built on the site of Uncle Billy’s chicken yard near the Chase Prairie Canoe Landing.]
Photo 17: The privy, not a contributing structure, located behind the Hebard Cabin (Trowell, December 1994). This privy has been removed new one has been built on the site of Uncle Billy’s chicken yard near the Chase Prairie Canoe Landing.
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[Photo 18: Interior of the Hebard Cabin - looking across the living room toward the west bedroom and kitchen [G1 on Map 6] (ONWR, Jeff Aicher, October 1994),]
Photo 18: Interior of the Hebard Cabin – looking across the living room toward the west bedroom and kitchen [G1 on Map 6] (ONWR, Jeff Aicher, October 1994),
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[Photo 19: Interior of the Hebard Cabin - west wall of the living room. Note the roofing trusses and purlin (ONWR, Jeff Aicher, October 1994).]
Photo 19: Interior of the Hebard Cabin – west wall of the living room. Note the roofing trusses and purlin (ONWR, Jeff Aicher, October 1994).
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[Photo 20: Interior of the Hebard Cabin - fireplace in living room (ONWR, Jeff Aicher, October 1994).]
Photo 20: Interior of the Hebard Cabin – fireplace in living room (ONWR, Jeff Aicher, October 1994).
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[Photo 21: Interior of the Hebard Cabin - west room, looking north [H on Map 6] (ONWR, Jeff Aicher, October 1994),]
Photo 21: Interior of the Hebard Cabin – west room, looking north [H on Map 6] (ONWR, Jeff Aicher, October 1994),
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[Photo 22: Interior of the Hebard Cabin - kitchen, looking northwest {I on Map 6]. The closed door leads to the pantry (ONWR, Jeff Aicher, October 1994).]
Photo 22: Interior of the Hebard Cabin – kitchen, looking northwest {I on Map 6]. The closed door leads to the pantry (ONWR, Jeff Aicher, October 1994).
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SaS

[Supplement A: Trowell, C.T., 1998 “Seeking a Sanctuary: A Chronicle of Efforts to Preserve the Okefenokee.” Okefenokee Wildlife League, Special Publication No. 6.]
Supplement A: Trowell, C.T., 1998 “Seeking a Sanctuary: A Chronicle of Efforts to Preserve the Okefenokee.” Okefenokee Wildlife League, Special Publication No. 6.
PDF

[Roland M. Harper called for the preservation of swamps in 1906 and 1909. He listed their importance as headwaters for streams, refuges for wildlife against their extermination by hunters, natural research laboratories, and lastly, for their beauty.]
Roland M. Harper called for the preservation of swamps in 1906 and 1909. He listed their importance as headwaters for streams, refuges for wildlife against their extermination by hunters, natural research laboratories, and lastly, for their beauty.
PDF

[But they ignited the interest of Francis Harper, his younger brother, and a group of biologists at Cornell University. In 1912, these scientists began a series of biological explorations of the Okefenokee Swamp that continued for over three decades.]
But they ignited the interest of Francis Harper, his younger brother, and a group of biologists at Cornell University. In 1912, these scientists began a series of biological explorations of the Okefenokee Swamp that continued for over three decades.
PDF

[The Georgia Legislature passed a resolution entitled Congress Urged to Establish a National Park in Okefenokee Swamp in 1919. The U.S. Department of Agriculture was urged to survey the Okefenokee Swamp as a potential forest reserve or a game preserve or a national park.]
The Georgia Legislature passed a resolution entitled
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[The Council Lumber Company, Twin Tree Lumber Company, and Braganza Lumber Company closed their mills and moved from the Okefenokee in 1926. Hebard Cypress Company vacated their logging camp on Billys Island the same year and moved north near Hopkins to finish cutting the timber near Dinner Pond. They ceased all logging operations and closed their mill at Hebardville in 1927.]
The Council Lumber Company, Twin Tree Lumber Company, and Braganza Lumber Company closed their mills and moved from the Okefenokee in 1926. Hebard Cypress Company vacated their logging camp on Billys Island the same year and moved north near Hopkins to finish cutting the timber near Dinner Pond. They ceased all logging operations and closed their mill at Hebardville in 1927.
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[Proposals to build a cross-swamp canal increased in popularity during the 1920s.]
Proposals to build a cross-swamp canal increased in popularity during the 1920s.
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[The Varns, the Langdales, and the Sessoms expanded their land holdings and began to plant and protect pine plantations around the Okefenokee. Toledo Manufacturing Company and Superior Pine Products Company began practicing scientific forestry by the mid- 1920s, but much of the barren and ragged landscape persisted.... US. Senator William J. Harris introduced a bill, S.5714 - To Establish the Okefenokee Wildlife and Fish Refuge, on February 4, 1929.]
The Varns, the Langdales, and the Sessoms expanded their land holdings and began to plant and protect pine plantations around the Okefenokee. Toledo Manufacturing Company and Superior Pine Products Company began practicing scientific forestry by the mid- 1920s, but much of the barren and ragged landscape persisted…. US. Senator William J. Harris introduced a bill,
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[The Okefenokee Association in Waycross, supported by the Chamber of Commerce and the newspaper, arranged a meeting in Waycross on March 12 to support the congressional efforts. Gov. Hardeman announced his support of the Okefenokee Plan. A number of dignitaries were invited to the meeting and motion pictures of Okefenokee scenes were shown by Peter S. Twitty. The. meeting appears to have generated considerable editorial support in area newspapers, including the Quitman Free Press and the Brunswick Pilot. But the movement soon lost momentum as conflicting interest groups jumped on the bandwagon.]
The Okefenokee Association in Waycross, supported by the Chamber of Commerce and the newspaper, arranged a meeting in Waycross on March 12 to support the congressional efforts. Gov. Hardeman announced his support of the Okefenokee Plan. A number of dignitaries were invited to the meeting and motion pictures of Okefenokee scenes were shown by Peter S. Twitty. The. meeting appears to have generated considerable editorial support in area newspapers, including the Quitman Free Press and the Brunswick Pilot. But the movement soon lost momentum as conflicting interest groups jumped on the bandwagon.
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[In July 1929, the House Conservation Committee in the Georgia Legislature began to discuss a bill introduced by Rep. Bonnell Stone of Union County, chairman of the Committee. The bill proposed that the Federal government be permitted to acquire the Hebard Lumber Company property and establish national forest reserves, forest experiment stations, wildlife sanctuaries, or for any other development purposes best suited on these lands.]
In July 1929, the House Conservation Committee in the Georgia Legislature began to discuss a bill introduced by Rep. Bonnell Stone of Union County, chairman of the Committee. The bill proposed that the Federal government be permitted to acquire the Hebard Lumber Company property and establish
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[In 1929 it was impossible to build a political consensus on what to do with the Okefenokee property because of the many proposals being promoted.]
In 1929 it was impossible to build a political consensus on what to do with the Okefenokee property because of the many proposals being promoted.
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[U.S. Senate Committee visits the Swamp.]
U.S. Senate Committee visits the Swamp.
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[The Senate visit was followed by further studies.]
The Senate visit was followed by further studies.
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[The Okefenokee Swamp was swept by wildfires in the closing months of 1931 and during the first half of 1932. These were years of extreme drought. The debris left by the logging operations fueled many of the fires. But these events had little effect on the efforts to preserve the Swamp.]
The Okefenokee Swamp was swept by wildfires in the closing months of 1931 and during the first half of 1932. These were years of extreme drought. The debris left by the logging operations fueled many of the fires. But these events had little effect on the efforts to preserve the Swamp.
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[The Georgia Society of Naturalists held their meeting in the Okefenokee Swamp on May 4, 1933. A number of members from Atlanta, Macon, and Valdosta attended. They explored the southeastern corner of the Swamp.]
The Georgia Society of Naturalists held their meeting in the Okefenokee Swamp on May 4, 1933. A number of members from Atlanta, Macon, and Valdosta attended. They explored the southeastern corner of the Swamp.
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[But plans to build a canal across the Okefenokee were soon succeeded by plans to build a scenic highway across the Swamp to provide the tourists in their automobiles a view of the magnificent landscape. By the summer of 1934, plans for the new scheme were underway. If there could be no jobs digging a canal, maybe there could be jobs building a scenic highway.]
But plans to build a canal across the Okefenokee were soon succeeded by plans to build a scenic highway across the Swamp to provide the tourists in their automobiles a view of the magnificent landscape. By the summer of 1934, plans for the new scheme were underway. If there could be no jobs digging a canal, maybe there could be jobs building a scenic highway.
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[Preservation efforts reached a critical mass in 1935. Congressman Braswell Deen and local promoters, including the Lions Club and the Rotary Club in Waycross were able to acquire approval of a conservation project proposal from the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation in April 1935.]
Preservation efforts reached a critical mass in 1935. Congressman Braswell Deen and local promoters, including the Lions Club and the Rotary Club in Waycross were able to acquire approval of a conservation project proposal from the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation in April 1935.
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[In late June 1935, Ivan Tomkins, a naturalist from Savannah, wrote to Francis Harper that he had heard a fairly good rumor that the Okefinokee is to be bought as a preserve, and no roads are to be put through it. Harper replied that Congress had authorized the purchase of the Okefenokee and the highway foolishness had been stopped.]
In late June 1935, Ivan Tomkins, a naturalist from Savannah, wrote to Francis Harper that he had heard
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[The Okefenokee Wildlife Refuge was created by executive order on March 30, 1937.]
The Okefenokee Wildlife Refuge was created by executive order on March 30, 1937.
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[In 1974 the sanctuary that had been sought and created was secured. The Okefenokee Swamp was designated a National Natural Landmark in September 1974. A month later President Gerald Ford signed the law creating the Okefenokee National Wilderness Area. In 1981 the wilderness canoe trails in the Okefenokee were designated to be part of the National Wilderness Trail System.]
In 1974 the sanctuary that had been sought and created was secured. The Okefenokee Swamp was designated a National Natural Landmark in September 1974. A month later President Gerald Ford signed the law creating the Okefenokee National Wilderness Area. In 1981 the wilderness canoe trails in the Okefenokee were designated to be part of the National Wilderness Trail System.
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NRHP

[NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES, EVALUATION/RETURN SHEET]
NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES, EVALUATION/RETURN SHEET
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RRMound

[Railroad from Billys Island to Floyds Island, with Indian Mound and Cabin]
Railroad from Billys Island to Floyds Island, with Indian Mound and Cabin
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